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By I.M. Kolthoff

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HICHAELIS* coined the term Regulators. They may also be referred to as Ampholytes because of the amphoteric character of such mixtures. 1 S. 2 L. (1914). All mixtures of weak adds and their salts, P. L, Sdrensen: Compt. rend. trav. lab. Carlsberg, 8, 1 (1909). Michaelia; Die Wasserstoffionenkonzentration, Berlin, Julius Springer ACID-BASE INDICATORS 24 or of weak bases with their salts, are therefore buffer mixtures (or regulators, or ampholytes). FELS 1 was the first to take advantage of such buffer mixtures.

C. MORTON l has proposed a measure of buffer capacity in terms of the dilution defined capacity /3 effect. He as dji In this equation n is a measure of the total electrolyte concen" " In very (cf. p. 56). 5 - z where z is the valence of the anion (z is 1 in acetate mixtures, 2 in mono-diphthalate mixtures, and 3 in solutions containing di- and tricitrate). 5 - z). by the nature of the particular mix- ture employed. In Chapter Eight, the effect of dilution on the mixtures will be considered in detail.

Accordingly [BOH] c* c* If [BOH] = - we let /3 log c J\AHA *" X A BOH [HA] = - may ~XHAX' [BOH] = [HA] = log usually Kw 2 [BOHJ _ [HA] _ - #BOH log c + 7 be set , . ^ ' (38) , - ipHA - pBOH. (39) represent the degree of hydrolysis in per cent, then (40) The [H + ] can be [BOH] is known. calculated simply from equation (34) since Thus: c - [BOH] v X "If w " XBOH / K~w v Y If w X IKwX and pH - 7 + fpHA - Expressions for fpBOH. [OH~] and pOH may be (42) derived in a similar manner. From and follows that the degree of hydrolysis and the hydrogen exponent are independent of the concentration of the salt, provided that its dissociation is complete.

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