By Anish Bhardwaj, Nabil J. Alkayed, Jeffrey R. Kirsch, Richard J. Traystman
Because the 3rd prime reason for loss of life within the usa, stroke debts for one in each fifteen deaths and is the key explanation for incapacity within the state. Compiled via a well known editorial crew, this reference bridges the space among easy technological know-how and sufferer care protocols, and collects forty three expertly written chapters that variety from laboratory-based examine on animal versions to the development, mechanisms, therapy, and diagnosis of ailments akin to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), focal ischemic stroke, and international cerebral ischemia.
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Extra info for Acute Stroke: Bench to Bedside (Neurological Disease and Therapy)
Brandt L, Ljunggren B, Anderson KE, Hindfelt B, Teasdale G. Vasoconstrictive effects of human posthemorrhagic cerebrospinal fluid on cat pial arterioles in situ. J Neurosurg 1981; 54:351–356. 25. Wellum GR, Peterson JW, Zervas NT. The relevance of in vitro smooth muscle experiments to cerebral vasospasm. Stroke 1985; 16:573–581. 26. Kuroki M, Kanamaru K, Suzuki H, Waga S, Semba R. Effect of vasospasm on heme oxygenases in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke 1998; 29:683 – 688; discussion 688–689.
In the model that followed, 5 ml of blood was injected into the cisterna magna (81), which caused a decrease in the contractility of vasospastic arteries 7 days after hemorrhage. This model has been used to study several experimental treatments, including papaverine (82). Standardization of the angiographic technique and use of a Trendelenberg position for 15 min after injection to encase the subarachnoid clot within the intracranial cisterns improved the reproducibility of this method. The modified technique was reported to induce a 37% decrease in basilar artery vasospasm 30 min and 48 hr after hemorrhage (83,84).
Aihara Y, Jahromi BS, Yassari R, Nikitina E, Agbaje-Williams M, Macdonald RL. Molecular profile of vascular ion channels after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2004; 24:75–83. 11. Macdonald RL, Curry DJ, Aihara Y, Zhang ZD, Jahromi BS, Yassari R. Magnesium and experimental vasospasm. J Neurosurg 2004; 100:106–110. 12. Robertson EG. Cerebral lesions due to intracranial aneurysms. Brain 1949; 72:150–185. 13. Ecker A, Riemenschneider PA. Arteriographic demonstration of spasm of the intracranial arteries with special reference to saccular arterial aneurysms.