Download Applied pyrolysis handbook by Thomas P. Wampler PDF

By Thomas P. Wampler

"Offers concise insurance of pyrolysis recommendations within the analytical laboratory--concentrating on sensible functions to real-world samples and pattern varieties. exhibits how pyrolysis can be utilized for quite a lot of fabrics, together with forensic proof, paints, fibers, textiles, paper, ink, photocopies, artwork and museum items, artificial polymers, and ordinary substances."

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The object was constructed of wood, which was covered with a white layer (the ground) of essentially inorganic material, used as a base for decorative paintings. It was decided to investigate the organic binder used in preparing the ground as a measure of the authenticity of the sarcophagus. If an ancient material had been used, the authenticity would be supported, if a modern adhesive was detected, the sarcophagus would be fraudulent. Various natural binder materials were proposed and investigated, including egg, wax, animal Page 21 FIGURE 11 Pyrolysis (500°C for 20 s) of Egyptian sarcophagus ground material for binder content (bottom), compared to sample of ancient animal glue (top).

General Considerations In the typical analysis by pyrolysis, it is essential to heat a small sample to its final temperature as quickly as possible. Samples are generally small because of the sampling capacity of the analytical instrument. For example, most gas chromatographic columns and detectors cannot handle more than a few micrograms of sample. This works to the advantage of an analyst who is using pyrolysis as a sample introduction technique, since a small sample will heat to its endpoint temperature quickly, with less thermal gradient than a large sample.

Several books have been published that present theoretical as well as practical aspects of the field, including a good introductory text by Irwin [1] and a compilation of gas chromatographic applications by Liebman and Levy [2]. A recent bibliography [3] lists approximately 500 recent papers in areas as diverse as food and environmental and geochemical analysis, while the application to microorganisms has been examined by Morgan et al. [4]. This chapter will include only a few representative examples of the kinds of applications being pursued, with references for further reading.

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