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By A. T. Ganesan

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J . Bacteriol. 154, 1184. White, K. and Sueoka, N. (1973). Genetics 73, 185. Winston, S. and Sueoka, N. (1980). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei. USA 77, 2834. IN THE BACILLUS SUBTILIS MUTANT DNA 3 7 1 Simone J. Seror-Laurent Gilles Henekes Alain Levine Françoise Vannier Institut de Microbiologie Universite Paris XI Orsay, France I. INTRODUCTION Bacteria are able to adjust their rate of DNA synthesis to the growth rate by modifying the frequency of initiation, whilst the velocity of the replication fork remains unchanged.

The RNA and the DNA Components of the RNA-DNA Molecule Are Complementary To the Same Strand of DNA It was important to determine whether the RNA and the DNA components from the RNA-DNA molecule were synthesized from the same strand of DNA or from two different strands. For that purpose, the two strands of the E19 fragment were separated by electrophoresis and each tested for their ability to hybridize with the RNA and DNA components. Our results presented in Figure 5 showed that both RNA and DNA Initiation of Chromosomal Replication Figure 4.

D-alanine is by most bacteria incorporated into the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall via the precursor NActeyl muramin pentapeptide (Figure 1 ) . To assure the necessary rigidity of the wall, crosslinks between the sugar chains must be established by means of peptide bonds between the carboxyl group of D-alanine and an amino group of for instance lysin. No other amino acid can adequately replace D-alanine's crucial crosslinking function. III. ALANINE RACEMASE In B. subtilis, D-alanine is synthesized from L-alanine by means of D,L-alanine racemase, a pyridoxal requiring enzyme.

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