By Dane Parker
The sort I interferon (IFN) signaling pathway is easily well-known as a pathway activated by way of viral infections. it truly is activated through quite a few microbial development attractiveness receptors together with the Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors and a number of other cytosolic receptors. Activation of the kind I IFN pathway ends up in the creation of either antiviral components and items that impression immune mobile functionality. extra lately it's been proven that micro organism also are able to activating this pathway.
Bacterial Activation of sort I Interferonsreviews either the present figuring out of the way various bacterial species may be able to turn on this pathway in addition to the impression sort I IFNs have at the consequence to an infection. a number of assorted bacterial species are coated, spanning Gram confident and Gram destructive, intracellular, extracellular, and diversified host an infection websites. An advent to the pathogenesis of every organism is supplied, and the signaling molecules inquisitive about the activation of the sort I IFN pathway and the position it performs in animal an infection types also are covered.
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Additional resources for Bacterial Activation of Type I Interferons
23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 39 dendritic cells and macrophages from permissive and nonpermissive mice. Infect Immun 75: 146–151 Girard R, Pedron T, Uematsu S, Balloy V, Chignard M, Akira S, Chaby R (2003) Lipopolysaccharides from Legionella and Rhizobium stimulate mouse bone marrow granulocytes via Toll-like receptor 2. J Cell Sci 116:293–302 Blanchard DK, Djeu JY, Klein TW, Friedman H, Stewart WE 2nd (1988) Protective effects of tumor necrosis factor in experimental Legionella pneumophila infections of mice via activation of PMN function.
Monocytogenes Infection Stimulator of interferon genes (STING), also called MITA, MPYS, or ERIS, is an evolutionarily conserved protein that contains five transmembrane regions and is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum [56–59]. The involvement of STING in type I IFN responses was first discovered in a screen where full length cDNA expression vectors were transfected into 293T cells containing a luciferase construct driven by the IFN-β promoter [56, 57]. Over-expression of STING increased IRF3 activation and IFN-β production in response to viral challenges [56, 57, 59].
Monocytogenes c-di-AMP is uncertain. However, mice lacking STING still produce type I IFNs in response to L. monocytogenes infection, highlighting the redundancy in these pathways mediating detection of pathogen-derived molecules and triggering of IFN-β production. The creation of double and triple knockout mice would provide a valuable tool to further dissect which sensing pathways are most crucial for L. monocytogenes sensing in vivo. Further understanding of how type I IFNs are triggered, and the effects they have on host biology, is essential for improving our knowledge of and ability to improve host resistance to bacterial infections.