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By Bernhard Sonnleitner

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376] even determined chemical oxygen demand (COD) from waste water stream using FIA in the range of 30 to 23000 mg l –1 within only 3 to 7 min. Filippini et al. [113] compared FIA with an in situ enzyme electrode during continuous cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FIA is also useful in environmental sciences such as water monitoring [8, 464] and has become increasingly important in downstream processing [59, 278]. FIA has been applied to detect microorganisms indirectly by measuring the concentration of a mediator which is reduced by the organisms [89].

169]. Other determinations focus on the Instrumentation of Biotechnological Processes 33 detection of H2 O2 or NADH [9]. Sensors are currently being made smaller and smaller [297, 298]. Potentiometric transducers measure the potential between the sensing element and a reference element. Thus, in contrast to amperometric transducers, practically no mass transport occurs; the response depends on the development of the thermodynamic equilibrium. pH changes often correlate with the measured substance because many enzymatic reactions consume or produce protons.

5). 36 B. Sonnleitner Generally, software sensors are typical solutions of so-called inverse problems. A so-called forward problem is one in which the parameters and starting conditions of a system, and the kinetic or other equations which govern its behavior, are known. In a complex biological system, in particular, the things which are normally easiest to measure are the variables, not the parameters. In the case of metabolism, the usual parameters of interest are the enzymatic rate and affinity constants, which are difficult to measure accurately in vitro and virtually impossible in vivo [93, 118, 275, 384].

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