By Elisa M. Mazzaferro
Blackwell’s Five-Minute Veterinary seek advice scientific spouse: Small Animal Emergency and significant Care is a condensed instruction manual with concise bullet points and alphabetically-organized subject matters. utilizing the preferred Five-Minute Veterinary seek advice layout, the publication offers swift entry to up-to-date information within the fast paced emergency room or severe care environment. Topics were pulled from the Five-Minute Veterinary seek advice: dogs and Feline and elevated to incorporate additional information, invaluable scientific photos, and beneficial diagrams, with many different chapters thoroughly new to this book.With greater than sixty-five professional bankruptcy authors, the ebook deals trustworthy details to aid advertise fast determination making in diagnosing and treating emergency stipulations. This medical significant other serves as an ideal purchase for common veterinary practitioners and scholars, veterinary technicians, and medical institution and emergency medical institution employees.
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Additional info for Blackwell's Five-Minute Veterinary Consult Clinical Companion: Small Animal Emergency And Critical Care
3 Metabolism of acetaminophen to both toxic and non-toxic by-products. In acetaminophen toxicity, the conjugation pathways become saturated and lead to increased p450 metabolism to N-acetyl-parabenzoquinoneimine (NAPQI), the toxic metabolite. Toxicity also leads to glutathione depletion which perpetuates hepatic damage and also contributes to oxidative damage of red blood cells. N-acetylcysteine helps get rid of NAPQI through conjugation to nontoxic by-product. ACETAMINOPHEN TOXICITY ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 9 Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) ■ 30 mg/kg PO or SQ every 6 hours ■ Questionable efficacy ■ May cause gastrointestinal upset Cimetidine ■ 5 to 10mg/kg every 6 to 8 hours IV, IM ■ Reduces metabolism of acetaminophen by the cytochrome p-450 oxidative system in the liver ■ Use as adjunct to N-acetylcysteine Supportive therapy ■ Intravenous fluids ■ ±O therapy 2 ■ ±Packed red blood cells or whole blood if necessary ■ Feed cats kitten food due to increased sulfhydryl group substrates S-adenosyl methionine (sAMe; denosyl) ■ 18 mg/kg PO every 24 hours on an empty stomach ■ Chronic treatment until liver enzymes are within normal limits ±Artificial tears; KCS may occur Contraindications ■ Drugs that may perpetuate clinical signs Precautions/Interactions ■ Drugs that are metabolized by the liver may have prolonged half-lives; drugs that are biotransformed by the liver may be less effective.
In both toxic and hypoxic injury to the kidneys, the proximal tubule is the most severely affected. 13 14 BLACKWELL’S FIVE-MINUTE VETERINARY CONSULT CLINICAL COMPANION Systems Affected ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Renal/Urologic: acute tubular necrosis, glomerulonephritis Gastrointestinal: uremic gastritis, gastrointestinal ulceration, hypergastrinemia, enteritis Hematologic: decreased erythropoietin production leading to anemia, thrombocytosis Endocrine/metabolic: hyperkalemia, hyper- or hyponatremia, metabolic acidosis, renal hyperparathyroidism Hepatic: hepatorenal syndrome (not proven to occur in animals) Neurologic: uremic encephalitis Respiratory: uremic pneumonitis Cardiovascular: hypertension, pericarditis Musculoskeletal: ataxia, seizures, muscular weakness SIGNALMENT/HISTORY ■ There is no specific signalment or history that is common among all patients with ARF.
3). 26 BLACKWELL’S FIVE-MINUTE VETERINARY CONSULT CLINICAL COMPANION THERAPEUTICS ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ First priority—address the underlying cause of SIRS or primary lung injury to remove source of ongoing injury/prevent repeat injury, if possible. Second priority—carefully evaluate fluid therapy to prevent fluid overload and worsened pulmonary dysfunction. Measurement of CVP or pulmonary capillary wedge pressure to aid in fluid therapy to prevent overhydration but maintain euvolemia. If volume overload is present, judicious administration of diuretics such as furosemide.