By Pen-Chi Chiang, Shu-Yuan Pan
This publication makes a speciality of an incredible expertise for mineralizing and using CO2 rather than liberating it into the ambience. CO2 mineralization and usage established within the waste-to-resource offer chain can “reduce carbon dependency, advertise source and effort potency, and reduce environmental caliber degradation,” thereby decreasing environmental dangers and extending financial advantages in the direction of Sustainable improvement objectives (SDG). during this booklet, entire details on CO2 mineralization and usage through speeded up carbonation know-how from theoretical and useful concerns was once offered in 20 Chapters. It first introduces the idea that of the carbon cycle from the thermodynamic perspective after which discusses rules and purposes relating to environmental influence review of carbon seize, garage and usage applied sciences. After that, it describes the theoretical and useful concerns for “Accelerated Carbonation (Mineralization)” together with analytical tools, and systematically provides the carbonation mechanism and modeling (process chemistry, response kinetics and mass move) and approach research (design and research of experiments, lifestyles cycle evaluation and value gain analysis). It then presents physico-chemical homes of other kinds of feedstock for CO2 mineralization after which explores the valorization of carbonated items as eco-friendly fabrics. finally, an essential method for waste remedy and source restoration is brought, and the carbonation approach is severely assessed and optimized according to engineering, environmental, and monetary (3E) research. The ebook is a beneficial source for readers who take medical and useful pursuits within the present and destiny Accelerated Carbonation Technology for CO2 Mineralization and Utilization.
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Algal). 3 Carbon Utilization and Valorization 23 industry and primary production . As a result, the biological process for CO2 utilization and transformation should be feasible from an economic standpoint and acceptable from an energy perspective. 4 Case Study: Microalgae Pond for CO2 Capture and Utilization Algal technology offers great potential to combat the global energy and CO2 crisis and malnutrition, while also generating high value-added products. Microalgae have been recognized as an alternative feedstock to energy conversion and/or chemicals production.
Calcium oxide or magnesium oxide is the most favorable metal oxide in reacting with CO2. , CaO and MgO) and then converted into carbonate precipitates in the presence of aqueous environments. In all cases, accelerated carbonation must provide base ions, such as monovalent sodium and potassium, or divalent calcium and magnesium ions to neutralize the carbonic acid . Other carbonate-forming elements, such as iron metals, are not practical due to their unique and precious features . 2 shows the potential pathways of carbonate ions (CO32−) in reaction with alkaline solid particles, including (1) direct conversion inside the solid particle, (2) crystallization on the surface of the particle, (3) precipitation in bulk solution, and then (4) attachment on the surface of the particle.
3 Carbon Utilization and Valorization The most valuable perspective in CO2 utilization and valorization is not the amount of CO2 used, since the ﬁxed CO2 would be reformed within a short time after a CO2made chemical is used. Rather, it is the introduction of innovative technologies for cleaner production that could reduce the use of materials and energy. Carbon utilization and valorisation can achieve a real carbon cycle toward environmental sustainability. After CO2 capture process, the concentrated CO2 can be either utilized directly, or converted and transformed into other products, as shown in Fig.