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By Douglas Ehring

Ehring indicates the inadequacy of obtained theories of causation, and, introducing conceptual units of his personal, offers a totally new account of causation because the patience through the years of person houses, or "tropes."

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Example text

And ifhis strategy for late preemption fails, any success with early preemption on the earlier approach is of little interest. The central issue thus becomes: does Lewis's extended analysis work for preemption? The answer is negative. Unextended counterfactual theory must reply to the charge that it treats preempt­ ing causes as nongenuine in cases oflate preemption. The extended analysis fixes that problem. The final effect will quasi-depend on events earlier in the main process. And this will hold of both early and late preemption.

If either does, the chance of survival is 50%. And even ifboth drugs reach the patient, the probability of recovery is still 50%. Hence, the probability of recovery just before the release of drug A is the same as the probability of recovery just after the release of drug A. 28 But as I indicated, there are a number of qualifications to Eells's basic account of token causation. We must now determine whether the release of drug A comes out as efficacious when these qualifications are brought into play.

As a consequence, David Lewis has weakened the requirements still further: events are causally connected if they are linked by a chain of events such that there is an intrinsically indistinguishable chain of events in some region or other (with different external circumstances) that does exhibit stepwise counterfactual dependence. However, as I will argue, this heavilyrevised form of counterfactual theory may save the efficacy of preempting causes, but it has the disastrous consequence that some preempted causes will also be judged efficacious.

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