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By J.F. Lawrence and R.W. Frei (Eds.)

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Pittet, Ccm. J. G. Hill, 0. F. Walton, Awl. Chim. Acfa, 33(1967)102. 8 K. Shimomura, L. F. Walton, And. Chim. Actu, 33(1965)84. F. H. R. Shafer,J. Amer. Oil Chem. , 40(1963)513. 10 R. Vivilecchia, M. W. Frei,J. , 10(1972)411. 11 B. DeVries, J. Amer. Oil Chem. ,40(1963) 184. 12 A. Berg and J. Lam, J. , 16(1964) 157. H. L. A. Fryer,J. , 89(1974)49. G. Harvey and M. Halonen, J. , 25(1966)294. P. Sharma and S. Ahuija, Z. Awl. , 367(1973)368. H. Shenk, Organic finctiowl Group Analysis, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1968.

1 Nature The emission of nuclear particles or radiation from an isotope during its disintegration is commonly referred to as radioactivity. These emissions are classified as of the three basic types a, p and 7. a-Particles, which are helium nuclei, have only weak penetrating power and may be stopped by 5-10 cm of air or thin metallic sheets. They are, however, highly energetic, ranging from 4 to 10 MeV. Thus they have a high ionization capacity 26 BACKGROUND and are capable of ionizing a larger number of atoms while traversing a given path through a material.

Alternatives to the spray technique are dipping and in situ derivatization. The dipping technique is satisfactory if no dislodgement of the adsorbent layer occurs while the plate is immersed in the reagent solution. This method is often superior to spraying since the plate is more evenly treated by dipping and the reproducibility between plates may also be improved. In situ derivatization is accomplished by incorporating the reagent into the elution solvent. The reaction does not occur during the chromatography, but when a separation is achieved the dried plate is simply heated and the derivatives are formed directly from the reagent-saturated layer.

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