Download Compilers: Backend to Frontend and Back to Front Again by Abdulaziz Ghuloum PDF

By Abdulaziz Ghuloum

Compilers are seemed to be magical artifacts, conscientiously crafted via the wizards, and unfathomable through the mere mortals. This paper makes an attempt to dispel this fable. We construct an easy compiler for an easy language in a step by step model. The enter language accredited via the compiler begins minimum, and grows as our wisdom of the way to construct compilers grows. the ultimate language is sort of Scheme.

Although the compiler is written within the Scheme programming language, simply minimum wisdom of Scheme is needed. primarily, the reader is believed to be cozy interpreting and writing recursive Scheme capabilities to the extent offered within the Little Schemer. also, we propose the freely to be had instructional train your self Scheme in Fixnum Days for individuals acquainted with different programming languages yet now not Scheme. The Scheme Programming Language is a useful source for realizing Scheme’s semantics. you will discover it most respected in case you hand over in pondering how record? detects round information structures.

Our compiler objectives the Intel-386 structure, the dominant structure for private computing. The output of our compiler is meeting code that may be assembled via fuel, the GNU assembler, that is freely on hand for many working structures. No wisdom of meeting language or the Intel-386 structure is believed past the fundamentals: binary numbers, reminiscence format, and easy tips. while you're acquainted with arrays in C, and understand how the bit-level operations (and, or, xor, and never) paintings, then you’re stable to go.

Contents
Preface v
1 uncomplicated techniques 1
1.1 Integers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 speedy Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.3 Unary Primitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.4 Conditional Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.5 Binary Primitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.6 neighborhood Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.7 systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1.8 new release through right Tail Calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
1.9 Heap Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
A Tables 41
A.1 ASCII desk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
A.2 item Tags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forty three

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Sample text

Individual objects are allocated at address %ebp and the allocation pointer is bumped to the first boundary after the object. A pointer to heap-space from which we allocate our objects is held in a dedicated register, %ebp. Allocation is performed by bumping the value of %ebp by the size of the object. If the size of the object is not a multiple of 8, then we bump %ebp to the next address that is a multiple of 8. Pairs require 8-bytes of memory to hold its car and cdr fields. Therefore, code generated for cons should, after evaluating its arguments, copy the value of the first argument to car-offset(%ebp), copy the value of the second argument to cdr-offset(%ebp), compute the pointer to the pair (by oring the pair-tag with the value of %ebp), then bump the value of %ebp by size-pair.

Below is the code for emit-let. Notice that as we progress in writing the compiler, we use more abstractions to make the code more readable and less dependent on the representation. (define (emit-let si env expr) (define (process-let bindings si new-env) (cond [(empty? bindings) (emit-expr si new-env (let-body expr))] [else (let ([b (first bindings)]) (emit-expr si env (rhs b)) (emit-stack-save si) (process-let (rest bindings) (next-stack-index si) (extend-env (lhs b) si new-env)))])) (process-let (let-bindings expr) si env)) Variables are easy to handle now.

Movl %ebx, 4(%ecx) 3. movl %esi, 16(%ecx) 4. movl %edi, 20(%ecx) 5. movl %ebp, 24(%ecx) 6. movl %esp, 28(%ecx) 7. movl 12(%esp), %ebp 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 13: Saving and restoring the context around L_scheme_entry. 40 CHAPTER 1. 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 APPENDIX A. TABLES ASCII Table #x0 #x1 #x2 #x3 #x4 #x5 #x6 #x7 #x8 #x9 #xA #xB #xC #xD #xE #xF #x10 #x11 #x12 #x13 #x14 #x15 #x16 #x17 #x18 #x19 #x1A #x1B #x1C #x1D #x1E #x1F #\nul #\soh #\stx #\etx #\eot #\enq #\ack #\bel #\bs #\tab #\lf #\vt #\ff #\cr #\so #\si #\dle #\dc1 #\dc2 #\dc3 #\dc4 #\nak #\syn #\etb #\can #\em #\sub #\esc #\fs #\gs #\rs #\us 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 #x20 #x21 #x22 #x23 #x24 #x25 #x26 #x27 #x28 #x29 #x2A #x2B #x2C #x2D #x2E #x2F #x30 #x31 #x32 #x33 #x34 #x35 #x36 #x37 #x38 #x39 #x3A #x3B #x3C #x3D #x3E #x3F #\sp #\!

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