By Vytautas Petronis
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Extra info for Constructing Lithuania: ethnic mapping in tsarist Russia, ca. 1800-1914
182-183; 188-189; 336-337. 98 Postnikov, Russia in Maps, p. 38. 45 opening of specialist schools within Russia. The Mathematical and Naviga tional School, based on the British model, functioned in Moscow during the period 1701-1752. Its first teachers were specialists from Scotland: Henry Farquharson (d. 1739), Stephen Gwyn and Richard Gries. In 1715 the Naval Academy in St. ” The geodesists, alumni of the Naval Academy, were the first Russian surveyors. " Finally, in 1725 the Imperial Academy of Sciences was opened.
55-62, passim', 106 Bogoslavskii, pp. 519-521. 48 southern lands of the Empire, which by this time had been intensely colo nised. 108 The following decades may be divided into several stages. During the first period, which comprised the rule of Catherine I (1725-1727) and Peter II (1727-1730), the imperial authorities focused mostly on simplifying and reducing the bureaucratic apparatus. This resulted in the partial restoration of the 17th-century Muscovite system. Dur ing the second period (the rule of Empress Anna Ivanovna 1730-1740) the major concern was restoring the state’s fiscal strength, which had been se verely undermined by the previous wars.
How ever, important changes did occur in the structure of provincial governance. It should be noted that the breakdown of the 1719 administrative reform was related to a malicious tendency to issue special individual decrees for each newly appointed local voivode. In time, the local administration became overloaded with such individual decrees, and each time a new administrator entered the uezd’s office, he had to follow the instructions given to his predecessors as well as his own. This situation hampered the smooth func 107 Got’e, p.