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Extra info for Constructing Lithuania: ethnic mapping in tsarist Russia, ca. 1800-1914

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182-183; 188-189; 336-337. 98 Postnikov, Russia in Maps, p. 38. 45 opening of specialist schools within Russia. The Mathematical and Naviga­ tional School, based on the British model, functioned in Moscow during the period 1701-1752. Its first teachers were specialists from Scotland: Henry Farquharson (d. 1739), Stephen Gwyn and Richard Gries. In 1715 the Naval Academy in St. ” The geodesists, alumni of the Naval Academy, were the first Russian surveyors. " Finally, in 1725 the Imperial Academy of Sciences was opened.

55-62, passim', 106 Bogoslavskii, pp. 519-521. 48 southern lands of the Empire, which by this time had been intensely colo­ nised. 108 The following decades may be divided into several stages. During the first period, which comprised the rule of Catherine I (1725-1727) and Peter II (1727-1730), the imperial authorities focused mostly on simplifying and reducing the bureaucratic apparatus. This resulted in the partial restoration of the 17th-century Muscovite system. Dur­ ing the second period (the rule of Empress Anna Ivanovna 1730-1740) the major concern was restoring the state’s fiscal strength, which had been se­ verely undermined by the previous wars.

How­ ever, important changes did occur in the structure of provincial governance. It should be noted that the breakdown of the 1719 administrative reform was related to a malicious tendency to issue special individual decrees for each newly appointed local voivode. In time, the local administration became overloaded with such individual decrees, and each time a new administrator entered the uezd’s office, he had to follow the instructions given to his predecessors as well as his own. This situation hampered the smooth func­ 107 Got’e, p.

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