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By D. Rao Sanadi

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROTON TRANSLOCATION AND M O V E M E N T S O F O T H E R IONS There is no doubt that mitochondria can cause protons to appear in the suspending medium; this occurs in oxygen-pulse and ATP-pulse experiments and also in association with cation uptake (see Harris et al, 1966a; Lehninger et al, 1967). There are, however, three main concepts, defined by Slater (1967a) and Chance et al (1967a), of the way in which proton ejection, cation uptake, and ATP synthesis are con­ nected with each other and with respiratory chain activity.

This is of the same order as the calculated value, 270 mV (p. 3 3 ) , of the P M F required to drive ATP synthesis in a Mg^^-containing system when [ P i ] = 10 mM and [ATP] / [ADP] = 100, conditions assumed by Mitchell to apply when the oxidoreduction and phosphorylation systems come into equilibrium with each other in State 4. It is, however, notably lower than the State 4 value for Ε (about 340 mV) derived from the measure­ ments of Cockrell et al. and Slater on a system without added Mg^^ (p.

Chance et al (1969a), using the luminescence of the protein aequorin as a sensitive detector (Shimomura et al, 1962), found that anoxia causes a rapid release of Ca^^ from mitochondria and that the Ca^^ is swiftly taken up again when oxygen is admitted. They maintain that these Ca-+ movements are responsible, at least in part, for the proton trans­ location observed by Mitchell and Moyle (Section II, A ) . The spirited advocacy of Scheme C has led Mitchell to further de­ fense of his interpretation of the oxygen- and ATP-pulse experiments.

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