By Bernard L. Horecker, Earl R. Stadtman
Present themes in mobile legislation, quantity 20 evaluates the fundamental mechanisms fascinated by the legislation of various mobile activities.
This e-book discusses the function of glutamine within the stream of nitrogen, rules of glycogen synthase task by way of covalent phosphorylation, and physiological position of PFK phosphorylation. The in vivo modulation of HMG-CoA reductase task, hypotheses at the function of eIF-2 phosphorylation, and ADP-ribosyltransferase from turkey erythrocytes also are elaborated. this article likewise covers the non-enzymic results of vanadate and phosphorylation of liver and muscle PFK.
This quantity is an effective resource for biologists and researchers attracted to advances within the normal zone of mobile law.
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B. Accumulation of Defective Preinitiation Complexes during Hemin Deprivation The discovery that hemin deficiency decreases the steady-state level of 43 S preinitiation complexes was interpreted as demonstrating that the rate of Met-tRNAf binding decreases (22). This seems an attractive hypothesis coupled with the fact that the factor mediating Met-tRNAf binding, eIF-2, becomes phosphorylated during inhibition. However, although a decreased binding of Met-tRNAf to the small ribosomal subunit could represent a decrease in the rate of formation of the com plex, it could also result from an increase in the utilization and/or degradation of the 43 S preinitiation complex.
These data not only suggest t h a t the total eIF-2 pool is capable of taking part in phosphorylation reactions but also reinforce the interpretation that the 2 5 - 3 0 % level of eIF-2a phosphorylation found in hemin-deficient lysate represents a low steady-state level re sulting from continuous phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the total eIF-2 pool. Returning to the question of how a greater t h a n 90% inhibition of protein synthesis can be achieved by the phosphorylation of only 25-30% of the available eIF-2a, some insight is again provided by the effects of sodium selenite.
Phosphorylation State of eIF-2 A. Number of Phosphorylation Sites B. Determination of the Phosphorylation State of eIF-2 by both Kinase and Phosphatase Activities C. Does the Extent of eIF-2a Phosphorylation Correlate with the Degree of Translational Inhibition? D. Implications of the Low Steady-State Level of eIF-2a Phosphorylation during the Inhibition of Protein Synthesis IV. Is Ternary Complex Formation the Only Initiation Step Affected in Hemin-Deficient Lysate? A. Met-tRNA f Binding to 43 SN B.