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Zerbe, O. and S. Jurt. 2014. Applied NMR Spectroscopy for Chemists and Life Scientists. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH, 548 pp. 5. (a) Akitt, J. W. and B. E. Mann. 2000. NMR and Chemistry: An introduction to modern NMR. 4th ed. Cheltenham, United Kingdom: Nelson-Thornes, 400 pp. (b) Abraham, R. , J. Fisher, and P. Loftus. 1988. Introduction to NMR Spectroscopy. Chichester, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 271 pp. Jacobsen, N. E. 2007. NMR Spectroscopy Explained: Simplified Theory, Applications, and Examples for Organic Chemistry and Structural Biology.

37 Pulses have a finite length, so short pulse delays lead to substantial duty cycles that can heat the sample and even damage the probe. Similarly, there is a limit to the RF power that one can use in a spin-locking experiment. For typical spectrometers, the upper limits are around a few kilohertz. 4. Since the system is at macroscopic equilibrium, the principle of detailed balance must hold: the rate of the forward reaction must equal the rate of the reverse. More specifically, the population of one state (the concentration of the reagent) times the forward rate constant, kf, must equal the population of the other state (product) times the reverse rate constant, kr.

E. the spin–spin relaxation rate, R2) depends on the exchange rate. More precisely, it depends on the square of the frequency difference divided by the rate. There are a number of methods for measuring R2 (=1/T2), but the most common is the CPMG experiment. The signal is refocussed by a series of π (180°) pulses, and the decay is monitored as a function of time. The important point is that this imposes another timescale on the exchanging system – that determined by the time between the refocussing pulses.

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